Essay On National Education Policy 1986 Porsche

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The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education amongst India's people. The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India. The first NPE was promulgated in 1968 by the government of Prime MinisterIndira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. The government of India has appointed a new committee under K. Kasturirangan to prepare a Draft for the new National Education Policy in 2017.[1]. Other members of this committee are former IAS officer K J Alphonse Kanamthanam, Baba Saheb Ambedkar University of Social Sciences (Mhow)’s vice-chancellor Ram Shanker Kureel, Guwahati University professor Persian Dr Mazhar, Manjul_Bhargava, mathematics professor at Princeton University, M K Sridhar, former Member Secretary Kamataka Innovation Council and. Kamataka Knowledge Commission, Prof. T V Kattimani,Vice Chancellor of Indira Gandhi National Tribal University Amarakantaka(MP), Former Uttar Pradesh education director Krishan Mohan Tripathi and Vasudha Kamat, former vice chancellor of Mumbai’s SNDT_Women's_University


Main article: Education in India

Since the country's independence in 1947, the Indian government sponsored a variety of programmes to address the problems of illiteracy in both rural and urban India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India's first Minister of Education, envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system. The Union government established the University Education Commission (1948–1949), the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953) and the Kothari Commission (1964–66) to develop proposals to modernise India's education system. The Resolution on Scientific Policy was adopted by the government of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister. The Nehru government sponsored the development of high-quality scientific education institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology. In 1961, the Union government formed the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as an autonomous organisation that would advise both the Union and state governments on formulating and implementing education policies.[2]


Based on the report and recommendations of the Education Commission (1964–1966), the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announced the first National Policy on Education in 1968, which called for a "radical restructuring" and equalise educational opportunities in order to achieve national integration and greater cultural and economic development.[3] The policy called for fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as stipulated by the Constitution of India, and the better training and qualification of teachers.[3] The policy called for focus on learning of regional languages, outlining the "three language formula" to be implemented in secondary education - the instruction of the English language, the official language of the state where the school was based, and Hindi,[3] Language education was seen as essential to reduce the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses. Although the decision to adopt Hindi as the national language had proven controversial, the policy called for use and learning of Hindi to be encouraged uniformly to promote a common language for all Indians.[3] The policy also encouraged the teaching of the ancient Sanskrit language, which was considered an essential part of India's culture and heritage. The NPE of 1968 called for education spending to increase to six percent of the national income.[3] As of 2013, the NPE 1968 has moved location on the national website.[4]


Having announced that a new policy was in development in January, 1985, the government of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy on Education in May, 1986.[5] The new policy called for "special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity," especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities.[5] To achieve such a social integration, the policy called for expanding scholarships, adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives for poor families to send their children to school regularly, development of new institutions and providing housing and services.[5] The NPE called for a "child-centred approach" in primary education, and launched "Operation Blackboard" to improve primary schools nationwide.[6] The policy expanded the open university system with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which had been created in 1985.[6] The policy also called for the creation of the "rural university" model, based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grassroots level in rural India.[6]


The 1986 National Policy on Education was modified in 1992 by the P.V. Narasimha Rao government.[7] In 2005, Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh adopted a new policy based on the "Common Minimum Programme" of his United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.[8] Programme of Action (PoA), 1992 under the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 envisaged conduct of a common entrance examination on all India basis for admission to professional and technical programmes in the country. For admission to Engineering and Architecture/Planning programmes, Government of India vide Resolution dated 18 October 2001 has laid down a Three – Exam Scheme (JEE and AIEEE at the National Level and the State Level Engineering Entrance Examinations (SLEEE) for State Level Institutions – with an option to join AIEEE). This takes care of varying admission standards in these programmes and helps in maintenance of professional standards. This also solves problems of overlaps and reduces physical, mental and financial burden on students and their parents due to multiplicity of entrance examinations.

Recent Developments[edit]

See also[edit]

Capitation Fee


Further reading[edit]

  • Joshee, Reva (2008). "Citizenship Education in India: From Colonial Subjugation to Radical Possibilities". In James Arthur; Ian Davies; Carole Hahn. SAGE Handbook of Education for Citizenship and Democracy. SAGE. pp. 175–188. ISBN 1412936209. 
  • Nair, Deepa (2009). "Contending `Historical' Identities in India". Journal of Educational Media, Memory & Society. 1 (1): 145–164. JSTOR 43049323. 

Essay on National Education Standards

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Current reforms and initiatives based on the national education standards focus on student’s achievement and teacher’s preparation. Educational researchers and curriculum designers continuously find problems with standards and requirements on a state level and how the state and local boards of education focus highly on advanced placement and cultural literacy. A key focus is also accountability for students, schools, and school-districts in regards to academic performance. A new factor that has surfaced is school choice (charter schools and home schooling) and character development. Progressive teachers are able to guide learners to new experiences in every lesson. However; they are sensitive to unique and different learning styles which…show more content…

Society can be defined as an organized group of people within a community who have come together for the purpose of culture, religion, political, or other personal reasons. In today’s society many influences affect the patterns of education regarding curriculum development. What was deemed the norm ten or twenty years ago has been noted as outdated due to technological advancements and many other components within our societies. Culture is deemed as the belief values to a specific society or social group. Education is known to be rich in all aspects as culture is held in the same regards.
Educational Reform
Reform has been known to mean a “change”. Now this change can be viewed at in terms of policy, practice, procedure, or organization. However; the term reform is usually misunderstood as being a strategic method to correct or identify a problem. John Dewey was one of the matriarchs in educational reform with his advocacy for public education and social reform. The Encyclopedia of the Social & Cultural Foundations of Education, (2008) states that Educational Reform has three competing concepts: Essentialism, Progressivism, and Holism.
Essentialists (educational researchers) have a basic understanding of core knowledge, skills, and values stemming from cross cultures. Learning is acquired on an individual basis and held with pride. Therefore, public schools are responsible for

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